Qian Xuesen: Exiled scientist from the US who helped China into space.-_115081432_qianxuesen-1.jpg

Chinese scientists are not helping a single superpower. But from two moons to the moon wrote Guitapuri But only one of his stories was remembered.In Shanghai there is a whole museum containing 70,000 items dedicated to a man Qian Shushen. "People's scientist"
Qian is the father of the Chinese missile and space program. His research helped develop China's first satellite rocket into space and a missile that became part of the nuclear arsenal, and he is regarded as a national hero.

But in joker123 another great power, where he studied and worked for more than a decade, his significant contributions are hardly remembered.Qian was born in 1911 as the last dynasty of China was to be replaced by a republic. Both of his parents were well educated and his father, after working in Japan, established the National Education System of China. It was evident from a young age that Qian was gifted and he eventually completed his top-of-class education at Shanghai University with a rare grant from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States.

In 1935, a well-dressed young man arrives in Boston. Qian may have experienced phobias and racism, said Chris Jespersen, a professor of history at North Georgia University. Believe that China [is] changing in a fundamentally important way, "and that he will certainly be among people who respect his knowledge From MIT Qian moved to the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to study under one of the most influential aeronautical engineers today, Hungarian émigré, Theodore von Karman.There, Qian shared an office with key scientist Frank Malina. Yet another prominent member of a small group of inventors known as the Suicide Squad.

Fraser Macdonald, author of Escape from Earth: A Secret History of the Space Rocket, said the group received the nickname because of efforts to build a rocket on campus and because experiments with certain volatile chemicals were seriously wrong, author Fraser Macdonald. Escape from Earth: A Secret History of the Space Rocket said, although he added that no one was dead.One day, Qian joined a conversation about a complex math problem with Malina and the other members of the group, and soon he was part of it, producing important research on rocket propulsion.

At that time, rocket science was "Mad and fantasies,Macdonald said. "Nobody cared about it - mathematically inclined engineers would not risk their reputation by saying this was the future." But that changed. Very quickly when the start of World War II The Suicide Squad caught the attention of the US Army, which paid for research into takeoff aircraft, where boosters were attached to the wings of the aircraft to fly from a shorter runway. Military funding also helped establish the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in 1943 under the director of Theodore von Karman Qian and Frank Malina at the heart of the project.

Qian is a Chinese citizen. But the Republic of China is an ally of the United States, so there is no doubt about the Chinese scientists at the heart of America's space efforts, ”said Fraser Macdonald. Qian was secured to do secret weapons research and also did. Duty on the US government's scientific advisory board At the end of the war, he was one of the world's foremost experts in jet propulsion and was sent with Theodore von Karman on a special mission to Germany, serving as a makeshift colonel. Their goal was to interview Nazi engineers, including Germany's top rocket scientist Werner von Braun. America wants to know what the Germans know.

But by the end of the decade, Qian's promising career in the US came to a halt and his life began to unfold.In China, Chairman Mao announced the creation of the Communist People's Republic in 1949, and the Chinese were soon seen as "The wicked," Chris Jespersen said, "so we have to go through these moments in the United States where we are fascinated by China, something happens and we curse China," he said.Meanwhile, the new JPL director is believed to have spies at the lab and shares his suspicions about some of the staff members with the FBI. “I noticed that they were all Chinese or Jewish. Said Fraser McDonald.

The Cold War is underway and the McCarthy era anti-communist witch hunt is near. In such an atmosphere, the FBI accused Qian, Frank Malina and others of being communists and of a threat to national security.The allegations against Qian come from a 1938 US Communist Party document showing that he attended a party that the FBI suspected was a Pasadena Communist Party meeting, although Qian denied any party membership. But new research suggests he was involved at the same time as Frank Malina in 1938.
But this didn't necessarily turn him into a Marxist. Fraser McDonald said being a communist at this time was against racism. He said the group wanted to highlight the threat of fascism as well as the horrors of racism in the United States. For example, they are campaigning against the split of the local Pasadena swimming pool and are using the Communist Party meeting to discuss the matter.

Zuoyue Wang, a professor of history at California State University, said there was no evidence that Qian had spied on China or was an intelligence officer when he was in the United States.However, he was released from security and under house arrest. Caltech colleagues, including Theodore von Karman, wrote to the government pleading for Qian's innocence, but in vain.In 1955, when Qian spent five years in detention, President Eisenhower decided to send him to China. The scientist set off on a boat with his wife and two children born in the United States, telling reporters waiting he would never set foot in America again. He keeps his promise